Effects of Exit Discharge Congestion on the Effective Evacuation Time in a Typical Underground Metro Station Design
Yulianto Sulistyo Nugroho - Fire Safety Engineering Research Group, Universitas Indonesia
Metro systems are being recognized as an effective and efficient way to solve transport problems in congested cities of the world. In emergencies such as those caused by fire, and power-cut is of utmost importance to have a well organized evacuation of passengers entrapped in an underground metro station building. Observation of fire emergency evacuation situations suggested the importance of managing the crowd on the ticket gates (usually on the concourse level) and the exit discharge on the ground level. The focus of this study is on the modeling of the effect of congestion in the exits discharge area on the effective evacuation time in a typical underground metro station fire. The results suggest that the projected maximum occupancy levels of an open space close to the exit discharge correlates with the movement capabilities of the evacuates at the corridors, stairs, escalators, and other facilities.