A Case Study Of Smoke And Heat Ventilation System Design In An Underground Car Park

Jan Weyr - Brno University of Technology

Abstract

This case study deals with smoke and heat ventilation system (SHEVS) design in underground car parks. The main aim of the work was to investigate the ideal solution for design of ventilation systems in case of fire in complicated spaces of underground garages using JET fan ventilation systems. The current legislative and normative background in the Czech Republic for SHEVS is yet to be developed, therefore these systems, particularly JET fan systems, are not very often installed.

Design of ventilation in the examined building is worked out in two different technical solutions. The first one is using main extraction fans in combination with axial impulse JET fans. The second design uses the same extraction fans for service and fire ventilation, but in combination with induction JET fans. Functionality of fire ventilation design using axial impulse fans is verified by FDS simulations in the second part of the study.

Several individual simulation scenarios and design options were created to discover the most important factors which have the major impact on final time of de-ventilation, on ventilation air velocity and on temperature development in the whole car park area. The difference in the individual scenarios was made by setting up different boundary conditions like amount of air flow, positioning of air intakes and various car occupancy. Due to insufficient background of valid Czech standards, it was necessary to obtain various information (such as required de-ventilation time after the final fire extinguishment) from foreign standards, particularly British standards.

Therefore, this case study shows the importance of proper and accurate design of SHEVS and its verification using FDS simulation and points out the unsatisfactory legislation background and lack of standards concerning SHEVS design in underground car parks in the Czech Republic.

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