Evaluation Of Engineered Smoke Management System For An International Airport Expansion Project Using PyroSim-FDS
Munirajulu, M - Engineering Design and Research Centre L&T Construction Larsen & Toubro Limited
The passenger terminal building of a modern international airport consists of high-rise, large volume, undivided public spaces for circulation. While local code governing high-rise buildings requires fire and smoke compartmentation, full compliance to the code is not practical due to the nature and use of passenger terminal building. Hence, performance-based fire engineering approach in conjunction with the local code provision is adopted for fire safety, using CFD analysis for the design of smoke management system for control of fire and smoke spread. In this project case study, smoke management system design adopts static smoke extraction i.e., automatic openable natural smoke vents for smoke exhaust and automatic openable louvers/doors for make-up air. In order to limit the smoke spread, the space is divided into a number of smoke zones. PyroSim/FDS is used for CFD modelling and analysis of smoke extraction system. Proposed smoke management system consists of smoke zones, smoke down stands/smoke curtains and natural smoke vents. Smoke vents are proposed on the façade for arrival area i.e., baggage reclaim area and on the roof for departure areas.
CFD model is created based on actual building geometry, number of vents, vent spacing and locations, and worst-case fire scenarios for departure and arrival areas of passenger terminal building. Design fire sizes include check-in hall fire, retail fire and baggage fire. Wind effect on smoke exhaust has been modelled for baggage reclaim area. CFD results of smoke visibility and smoke temperature demonstrate that smoke spread is limited to the smoke zones of fire origin. Tenable conditions for life safety are ensured throughout the passenger terminal building and hence proposed smoke management system in terms of number of vents and openable louvers is found to be adequate to evacuate and exhaust smoke in case of fire in the passenger terminal building spaces.